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Jun 19, 2018

                       Material Selection

  During recent years the selection of engineering materials has assumed great importance.Moreover, the process should be one of continual reevaluation. New materials often become available and there may be a deceasing avaibability of others. Concerns regarding enviromental pollution, recyling and worker health and safety often impose new constraints. The desire for weight reduction or engery savings may dictate the use of different materials. Pressures from domestic and foreign competition, increased serviceability requirements,and customer feedback may all promote materials reevaluation. The extent of product liability actions, often the result of improper material use ,has had a marked impact. In addition, the interdependence between materials and their processing has become better recognized. The development of new processes often forces reevaluation of the materials being processed. Therefore, it is imperative that design and manufacturing engineers exercise considerable care in selecting, specifying , and ultilizing materials if they are to achieve satisfactory results at reasonable cost and still assure quality.

The first step in the manufacture of any product is design,which usually takes place in several distinct stages: (a) conceptual;(b)functional;(c) production design. During the conceptual-design stage, the designer is concerned primarily with the functions the product is to fulfill. Usually several concepts are visualized and considered,and a decision is made either that the idea is not practial or that the idea is sound and one or more of the conceptual designs should be developed further.Here ,the only concern for materials is the materials exist that can provide the desired properties. If no such materials are avaible, consideration is given as to whether there is a reasonable prospect that new ones could be developed within cost and time limitations.

At the functional-or engineering –design stage, a practical, workable design is developed. Fairly complete drawings are made, and materials are selected and specified for the various components. Often a prototype or working model is made that can be tested to permit evaluation of the prouduct as to function,reliability,apperance,serviceablitity ,and so on. Although it is expected that such testing might show that some changes may have to be made in materials before the product is advanced to the production-design, this should not be taken as an excuse for not doing a thorough job of material selection. Apperance, cost ,and reliability factors should be considered in details, together with the functional factors.

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