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shaft design
Feb 06, 2018

   A shaft is a rotating or stationary member, usually of circular cross section, having mounted upon it such elements as gears, pulleys ,flywheels, and other power-transmission elements.

If a shaft carries several gears or pulleys, different sections of the shaft will be subjected to different torques, because the total power delivered to the shaft is taken off piecemeal at various points. Figure 1.1 shows a shaft with an input at one location (Point A) and several outputs (points B,C and D) on either side of the input. Gears or pulleys can be used to supply power to the shaft or to take power off the shaft. Hence one must note the amount of torque on each part of the shaft. Then study the distribution of the bending moment, preferably sketching (freehand is all right ) the shear force and bending moment diagrams.


From this preliminary examination, which is a problem in mechanics, we note the section where the bending moment is a maximum and the section where the torque is a maximum. If these maximums occur at the same section, the diameter needed for that section is determined –and used for the entire shaft when the diameter is to be constant. If the maximums do not occur at the same section, determine the diameter for the section of maximum torque and also for the section of maximum bending moment, and use the larger value.

The diameter of shaft is often varied from point to point, sometimes for structural reasons (see fig 1.2). In this case, check the stress or determine the size needed for each section. The designer makes certain that all sections of the shaft are subjected to safe stresses, taking due note of fillets, holes, keyways, and other stress raisers.




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